Level 5 CMMC - CMMC Practices

SI.2.216  

Reference: CMMC 1.02

Family: SI

Level Introduced: 2

Practice:
Monitor organizational systems, including inbound and outbound communications traffic, to detect attacks and indicators of potential attacks.

CMMC Clarification:
Organizations should leverage their monitoring systems to look for indicators of attacks. Think of indicators of attack as a series of actions that an adversary conducts in advance of an attack. Indicators of attack concern the steps involved and the intent of the adversary.

Indicators of attacks on organizational systems may include:
• internal traffic that indicates the presence of malicious code;
• malicious code detected during non-business hours;
• the unauthorized data leaving the organization; and
• communicating to external information systems.

To detect attacks and indicators of attacks with success, deploy monitoring devices. Place these devices within the systems at strategic points to collect essential information. Strategic points include internal and external system boundaries. The organization should monitor both inbound traffic and outbound traffic.

Example
You are in charge of IT operations at your organization. You look for attacks to your network. To do this, you monitor all organizational systems. You also watch communications to and from your machines. You look for indicators, or things that don’t look like they should. These indicators can show up in many places on your network. You should monitor important places on your network. These places might include:
• perimeter locations, or locations your networks connect to the internet;
• machines that have important software or data on them that attackers might want to
access; and
• your remote connections which may be a way to gain access to your network from the outside.

Perform additional monitoring when you find an indicator, or something that doesn’t perform as it should. This extra monitoring should tell you if it is a current or potential attack.

Set up your monitoring activities so that they support your organization’s planning. Develop your monitoring requirements as part of your organization’s security activities. Ensure that your monitoring activities meet the security needs of your organization.

3.14.6

Monitor organizational systems, including inbound and outbound communications traffic, to detect attacks and indicators of potential attacks.

Discussion:
System monitoring includes external and internal monitoring. External monitoring includes the observation of events occurring at the system boundary (i.e., part of perimeter defense and boundary protection). Internal monitoring includes the observation of events occurring within the system. Organizations can monitor systems, for example, by observing audit record activities in real time or by observing other system aspects such as access patterns, characteristics of access, and other actions. The monitoring objectives may guide determination of the events. System monitoring capability is achieved through a variety of tools and techniques (e.g., intrusion detection systems, intrusion prevention systems, malicious code protection software, scanning tools, audit record monitoring software, network monitoring software). Strategic locations for monitoring devices include selected perimeter locations and near server farms supporting critical applications, with such devices being employed at managed system interfaces. The granularity of monitoring information collected is based on organizational monitoring objectives and the capability of systems to support such objectives.

System monitoring is an integral part of continuous monitoring and incident response programs. Output from system monitoring serves as input to continuous monitoring and incident response programs. A network connection is any connection with a device that communicates through a network (e.g., local area network, Internet). A remote connection is any connection with a device communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Local, network, and remote connections can be either wired or wireless.

Unusual or unauthorized activities or conditions related to inbound/outbound communications traffic include internal traffic that indicates the presence of malicious code in systems or propagating among system components, the unauthorized exporting of information, or signaling to external systems. Evidence of malicious code is used to identify potentially compromised systems or system components. System monitoring requirements, including the need for specific types of system monitoring, may be referenced in other requirements.

[SP 800-94] provides guidance on intrusion detection and prevention systems.

Source: NIST Special Publication 800-171 Rev. 2

SI-4

INFORMATION SYSTEM MONITORING

Description:
The organization:
    a. Monitors the information system to detect:
        1. Attacks and indicators of potential attacks in accordance with [Assignment: organization-defined monitoring objectives]; and
        2. Unauthorized local, network, and remote connections;
    b. Identifies unauthorized use of the information system through [Assignment: organization-defined techniques and methods];
    c. Deploys monitoring devices:
        1. Strategically within the information system to collect organization-determined essential information; and
        2. At ad hoc locations within the system to track specific types of transactions of interest to the organization;
    d. Protects information obtained from intrusion-monitoring tools from unauthorized access, modification, and deletion;
    e. Heightens the level of information system monitoring activity whenever there is an indication of increased risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, or the Nation based on law enforcement information, intelligence information, or other credible sources of information;
    f. Obtains legal opinion with regard to information system monitoring activities in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, or regulations; and
    g. Provides [Assignment: organization-defined information system monitoring information] to [Assignment: organization-defined personnel or roles] [Selection (one or more): as needed; [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]].

Supplemental Guidance:
Information system monitoring includes external and internal monitoring. External monitoring includes the observation of events occurring at the information system boundary (i.e., part of perimeter defense and boundary protection). Internal monitoring includes the observation of events occurring within the information system. Organizations can monitor information systems, for example, by observing audit activities in real time or by observing other system aspects such as access patterns, characteristics of access, and other actions. The monitoring objectives may guide determination of the events. Information system monitoring capability is achieved through a variety of tools and techniques (e.g., intrusion detection systems, intrusion prevention systems, malicious code protection software, scanning tools, audit record monitoring software, network monitoring software). Strategic locations for monitoring devices include, for example, selected perimeter locations and near server farms supporting critical applications, with such devices typically being employed at the managed interfaces associated with controls SC-7 and AC-17. Einstein network monitoring devices from the Department of Homeland Security can also be included as monitoring devices. The granularity of monitoring information collected is based on organizational monitoring objectives and the capability of information systems to support such objectives. Specific types of transactions of interest include, for example, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) traffic that bypasses HTTP proxies. Information system monitoring is an integral part of organizational continuous monitoring and incident response programs. Output from system monitoring serves as input to continuous monitoring and incident response programs. A network connection is any connection with a device that communicates through a network (e.g., local area network, Internet). A remote connection is any connection with a device communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Local, network, and remote connections can be either wired or wireless. Related controls: AC-3, AC-4, AC-8, AC-17, AU-2, AU-6, AU-7, AU-9, AU-12, CA-7, IR-4, PE-3, RA-5, SC-7, SC-26, SC-35, SI-3, SI-7.

Source: NIST Special Publication 800-53 Rev. 4

Source: CMMC v1.02